The enzyme is known to be a redox factor (Ref-1) stimulating DNA binding activity of AP-1 binding proteins such as Fos and Jun as well as a multifunctional DNA repair enzyme having 5' AP endonuclease, DNA 3' repair diesterase, 3'-5' exonuclease and DNA 3'-phosphatase activities.Although Apex mRNA was expressed ubiquitously, the levels varied significantly, suggesting organ- or tissue-specific expression of the Apex gene. The highest level was observed in the testis, relatively high levels in the thymus, spleen, kidney and brain, and the lowest level in the liver in rats. However, the present results suggested that APEX/Ref-1 gene product can interact with AP-1 binding proteins in brain, especially in the hippocampal formation, to regulate some brain functions by redox-activation.
APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1
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- Yao M, et al. (1999) Genomic structure of the rat major AP endonuclease gene (Apex) with an adjacent putative O-sialoglycoprotease gene (Prsmg1/Gcpl1) and a processed Apex pseudogene (Apexp1). Acta Med Okayama. 53 (6): 245-52.