The cluster of differentiation (CD) system is commonly used as cell markers in immunophynotyping. Different kinds of cells in the immune system can be identified through the surface CD molecules which associating with the immune function of the cell. There are more than 32 CD unique clusters and subclusters have been identified. Some of the CD molecules serve as receptors or ligands important to the cell through initiating a signal cascade which then alter the behavior of the cell. Some CD proteins do not take part in cell signal process but have other functions such as cell adhesion. CD119 (cluster of differentiation 119), also known as IFNGR1 ( interferon gamma receptor 1), is part of the heterodimeric gamma interferon receptor which consists of IFNGR1 (CD119) and IFNGR2. The IFNGR1 gene encodes the ligand-binding chain (alpha) of the interteron receptor while IFNGR gene encodes the non-ligand binding partner. The ability of the interferon-γ was achieved through binding to the interferon receptor CD119. After binding, the products of activated T-lymphocytes interferon-γ exerts antiviral activity, growth inhibitory effect, and several immune- regulatory activities on a variety of cell types.
interferon gamma receptor 1
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