The cluster of differentiation (CD) system is commonly used as cell markers in immunophynotyping. Different kinds of cells in the immune system can be identified through the surface CD molecules which associating with the immune function of the cell. There are more than 32 CD unique clusters and subclusters have been identified. Some of the CD molecules serve as receptors or ligands important to the cell through initiating a signal cascade which then alter the behavior of the cell. Some CD proteins do not take part in cell signal process but have other functions such as cell adhesion. CD12a (cluste of differentiation 12a), also known as TNFR1 / TNFRSF1A, is a member of CD family, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. CD12a is one of the most primary receptors for the tumor necrosis factor-alpha. It has been shown to be localized to both plasma membrane lipid rafts and the trans golgi complex with the help of the death domain (DD). CD12a can activate the transcription factor NF-κB, mediate apoptosis, and regulate inflammation processes.
tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A
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