The esophageal squamous cell cancer is the prevailing histology subtype of esophageal cancer and is distinguished by its high mortality and its geographic differences in regards to its incidence. Some of these advances for treating this disease include the research of etiopathogenesis (virus, as the human papillomavirus, and the genes susceptible to cancer), genes associated with tumors (oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes), as well as new forms of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for the treatment of this neoplasia.
There are many ways of immunotherapy for esophageal cancer:
1, Use of activated lymphocytes stimulated with tumor-pulsed dendritic cells (to enhance the cytotoxity of the activated lymphocytes) showed disappearance of skin metastatsis of ESCC and might be useful for local treatment or postoperative adjuvant therapy.
2, use of IL-2 preoperative as neoadjuvant immunochemotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer may cause significant tumor regression in both size and shape (with clear surgical margins and absence of metastasis).
3, Clinically significant tumor regression of solid metastatic lesions from esophageal cancer has been achieved through the use of locoregional adoptive immunotherapy (AIT).
4, The use of the KIS1 F(ab)2 fragment, i.e. the part of the antibody that interacts with its antigen may be clinically useful for radioimmunodetection followed by tumor targeting therapy for patients with SCC of the esophagus.
5, The oncolytic herpes simplex-1 virus (NV1066), is a virus that has been engineered to infect and lyse tumor cells selectively. Due to its oncolytic activity in vitro and in vivo, which can be tracked endoscopically as it expresses the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP), may be a useful therapy against esophageal cancer.
As the number of clinicals trials of cancer-specific immunotherapy for esophageal cancer continues to increase, we hope that new apects on the way of how to use the immune response to attack this neoplasia will be enlighted.
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